Victor Yashunsky (PCC, Institut Curie, Paris). ESPCI-ENS Biophysics seminar

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15 June 13:00 » 14:00 — ENS Conf IV, 2nd floor

Collective organization and dynamics of cell cultures

Cells exhibit rich repertoire of dynamical behaviors, which depend on cell phenotype and microenvironment. Collective dynamics is not just a product of many individually moving units. Instead, cells coordinate their movements and move as collective entities. Various biological processes, including morphogenesis, cancer progression and tissue remodeling, largely depends on the coordinated behavior of cells. Using in vitro experiments, I will show that very different cell types, such as mesenchymal cells and epithelial cells, which look very unlike in their dynamics and morphology, actually move and self-organize according same physical principles. Nematodynamics - theory of active non-polar gels allows to formulate unified description of collective motion of cells, where different modes of motion determined by small set of parameters (activity, elastic constant, viscosity and friction). I will present examples of (1) spontaneous left-right symmetry breaking and emergence of collective shear flows of spindle-shaped cells when they confined in adhesive stripes; (2) chaotic vorticity in human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers; and (3) critical dimensions required for collective invasion of fibrosarcoma cells. I will discuss the mechanism behind these phenomena and their effect on cell organization and function.





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