Rachid Thiam (LPS, ENS, Paris). ENS-ESPCI Biophysics Seminar

3 février 2017 13:00 » 14:00 — ENS, Room L363/L365, 3rd floor

Biogenesis mechanism of fat storage organelles

All organisms are able to store excess energy in order to buffer energy fluctuations. Excess energy is stored in the form of neutral lipids, i.e. fat, encapsulated in organelles called lipid droplets. These droplets are at the core of cellular lipid and energy metabolism. The regulation of lipid droplets, which starts form their formation to reuse, is critical to human health ; its impairment is indeed associated to many metabolic disorders including type II diabetes, liver steatosis, neurodegenerative and cardiac diseases. The list of lipid droplet identified functions has recently largely expanded and includes, for example, various non-metabolic functions such as in viral infections or cancers. Despite these multiple implications, how lipid droplets mechanistically form remains poorly understood. Under energy rich conditions, excess nutrients are transformed into neutral lipids that are synthesized within the inter-monolayer space of the endoplasmic reticulum. The lipids next gather to form a spherically budded droplet. How this droplet budding process exactly happens is unknown. This is one of the most important questions to address for better knowing the regulation and function of lipid droplets in the cell. My talk will present our recent progress to answer this question through a combination of physical and biological approaches.

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